\newpage
\section{ISASUSY: Decay Modes in the Minimal Supersymmetric
Model\label{SUSY}}
The code in patch ISASUSY of ISAJET calculates decay modes of
supersymmetric particles based on the work of H. Baer, M. Bisset, M.
Drees, D. Dzialo (Karatas), X. Tata, J. Woodside, and their
collaborators. The calculations assume the minimal supersymmetric
extension of the standard model. The user specifies the gluino mass,
the pseudoscalar Higgs mass, the Higgsino mass parameter $\mu$,
$\tan\beta$, the soft breaking masses for the first and third
generation left-handed squark and slepton doublets and right-handed
singlets, and the third generation mixing parameters $A_t$, $A_b$, and
$A_\tau$. Supersymmetric grand unification is assumed by default in
the chargino and neutralino mass matrices, although the user can
optionally specify arbitrary $U(1)$ and $SU(2)$ gaugino masses at the
weak scale. The first and second generations are assumed by default to
be degenerate, but the user can optionally specify different values.
These inputs are then used to calculate the mass eigenstates, mixings,
and decay modes.
Most calculations are done at the tree level, but one-loop
results for gluino loop decays, $H \to \gamma\gamma$ and $H \to gg$, loop
corrections to the Higgs mass spectrum and couplings, and leading-log
QCD corrections to $H \to q \bar q$ are included. The Higgs masses have
been calculated using the effective potential approximation including
both top and bottom Yukawa and mixing effects. Mike Bisset and Xerxes
Tata have contributed the Higgs mass, couplings, and decay routines.
Manuel Drees has calculated several of the three-body decays including
the full Yukawa contribution, which is important for large tan(beta).
Note that e+e- annihilation to SUSY particles and SUSY Higgs bosons
have been included in ISAJET versions $>7.11$. ISAJET versions $>7.22$
include the large $\tan\beta$ solution as well as non-degenerate
sfermion masses.
Other processes may be added in future versions as the physics
interest warrants. Note that
the details of the masses and the decay modes can be quite sensitive
to choices of standard model parameters such as the QCD coupling ALFA3
and the quark masses. To change these, you must modify subroutine
SSMSSM. By default, ALFA3=.12.
All the mass spectrum and branching ratio calculations in ISASUSY
are performed by a call to subroutine SSMSSM. Effective with version 7.23,
the calling sequence is
\begin{verbatim}
SUBROUTINE SSMSSM(XMG,XMU,XMHA,XTANB,XMQ1,XMDR,XMUR,
$XML1,XMER,XMQ2,XMSR,XMCR,XML2,XMMR,XMQ3,XMBR,XMTR,
$XML3,XMLR,XAT,XAB,XAL,XM1,XM2,XMT,IALLOW)
\end{verbatim}
where the following are taken to be independent parameters:
\smallskip\noindent
\begin{tabular}{lcl}
XMG &=& gluino mass\\
XMU &=& $\mu$ = SUSY Higgs mass\\
&=& $-2*m_1$ of Baer et al.\\
XMHA &=& pseudo-scalar Higgs mass\\
XTANB &=& $\tan\beta$, ratio of vev's\\
&=& $1/R$ (of old Baer-Tata notation).\\
\end{tabular}
\noindent
\begin{tabular}{lcl}
XMQ1 &=& $\tilde q_l$ soft mass, 1st generation\\
XMDR &=& $\tilde d_r$ mass, 1st generation\\
XMUR &=& $\tilde u_r$ mass, 1st generation\\
XML1 &=& $\tilde \ell_l$ mass, 1st generation\\
XMER &=& $\tilde e_r$ mass, 1st generation\\
\\
XMQ2 &=& $\tilde q_l$ soft mass, 2nd generation\\
XMSR &=& $\tilde s_r$ mass, 2nd generation\\
XMCR &=& $\tilde c_r$ mass, 2nd generation\\
XML2 &=& $\tilde \ell_l$ mass, 2nd generation\\
XMMR &=& $\tilde\mu_r$ mass, 2nd generation\\
\\
XMQ3 &=& $\tilde q_l$ soft mass, 3rd generation\\
XMBR &=& $\tilde b_r$ mass, 3rd generation\\
XMTR &=& $\tilde t_r$ mass, 3rd generation\\
XML3 &=& $\tilde \ell_l$ mass, 3rd generation\\
XMTR &=& $\tilde \tau_r$ mass, 3rd generation\\
XAT &=& stop trilinear term $A_t$\\
XAB &=& sbottom trilinear term $A_b$\\
XAL &=& stau trilinear term $A_\tau$\\
\\
XM1 &=& U(1) gaugino mass\\
&=& computed from XMG if > 1E19\\
XM2 &=& SU(2) gaugino mass\\
&=& computed from XMG if > 1E19\\
\\
XMT &=& top quark mass\\
\end{tabular}
\smallskip
\noindent The variable IALLOW is returned:
\smallskip\noindent
\begin{tabular}{lcl}
IALLOW &=& 1 if Z1SS is not LSP, 0 otherwise\\
\end{tabular}
\smallskip
\noindent All variables are of type REAL except IALLOW, which is
INTEGER, and all masses are in GeV. The notation is taken to
correspond to that of Haber and Kane, although the Tata Lagrangian is
used internally. All other standard model parameters are hard wired in
this subroutine; they are not obtained from the rest of ISAJET. The
theoretically favored range of these parameters is
\begin{eqnarray*}
& 50 < M(\tilde g) < 2000\,\GeV &\\
& 50 < M(\tilde q) < 2000\,\GeV &\\
& 50 < M(\tilde\ell) < 2000\,\GeV &\\
& -1000 < \mu < 1000\,\GeV &\\
& 1 < \tan\beta < m_t/m_b &\\
& M(t) \approx 175\,\GeV &\\
& 50 < M(A) < 2000\,\GeV &\\
& M(\tilde t_l), M(t_r) < M(\tilde q) &\\
& M(\tilde b_r) \sim M(\tilde q) &\\
& -1000 < A_t < 1000\,\GeV &\\
& -1000 < A_b < 1000\,\GeV &
\end{eqnarray*}
It is assumed that the lightest supersymmetric particle is the lightest
neutralino $\tilde Z_1$, the lighter stau $\tilde\tau_1$, or the
gravitino $\tilde G$ in GMSB models. Some choices of the above
parameters may violate this assumption, yielding a light chargino or
light stop squark lighter than $\tilde Z_1$. In such cases SSMSSM does
not compute any branching ratios and returns IALLOW = 1.
SSMSSM does not check the parameters or resulting masses against
existing experimental data. SSTEST provides a minimal test. This routine
is called after SSMSSM by ISAJET and ISASUSY and prints suitable warning
messages.
SSMSSM first calculates the other SUSY masses and mixings and puts
them in the common block /SSPAR/:
\begin{verbatim}
#include "sspar.inc"
\end{verbatim}
It then calculates the widths and branching ratios and puts them in the
common block /SSMODE/:
\begin{verbatim}
#include "ssmode.inc"
\end{verbatim}
Decay modes for a given particle are not necessarily adjacent in this
common block. Note that the branching ratio calculations use the full
matrix elements, which in general will give nonuniform distributions in
phase space, but this information is not saved in /SSMODE/. In
particular, the decays $H \to Z + Z^* \to Z + f + \bar f$ give no
indication that the $f \bar f$ mass is strongly peaked near the upper
limit.
All IDENT codes are defined by parameter statements in the PATCHY
keep sequence SSTYPE:
\begin{verbatim}
#include "sstype.inc"
\end{verbatim}
These are based on standard ISAJET but can be changed to interface with
other generators. Since masses except the t mass are hard wired, one
should check the kinematics for any decay before using it with possibly
different masses.
Instead of specifying all the SUSY parameters at the electroweak
scale using the MSSMi commands, one can instead use the SUGRA parameter
to specify in the minimal supergravity framework the common scalar mass
$m_0$, the common gaugino mass $m_{1/2}$, and the soft trilinear SUSY
breaking parameter $A_0$ at the GUT scale, the ratio $\tan\beta$ of
Higgs vacuum expectation values at the electroweak scale, and $\sgn\mu$,
the sign of the Higgsino mass term. The \verb|NUSUGi| keywords allow one
to break the assumption of universality in various ways. \verb|NUSUG1|
sets the gaugino masses; \verb|NUSUG2| sets the $A$ terms; \verb|NUSUG3|
sets the Higgs masses; \verb|NUSUG4| sets the first generation squark
and slepton masses; and \verb|NUSUG5| sets the third generation masses.
The keyword \verb|SSBCSC| can be used to specify an alternative scale
(i.e., not the coupling constant unification scale) for the RGE boundary
conditions.
The renormalization group equations now include all the two-loop
terms for both gauge and Yukawa couplings and the possible contributions
from right-handed neutrinos. These equations are solved iteratively using
Runge-Kutta numerical integration to determine the weak scale parameters
from the GUT scale ones:
\begin{enumerate}
%
\item The RGE's are run from the weak scale $M_Z$ up to the GUT scale,
where $\alpha_1 = \alpha_2$, taking all thresholds into account. We use
two loop RGE equations for the gauge couplings only.
%
\item The GUT scale boundary conditions are imposed, and the RGE's are
run back to $M_Z$, again taking thresholds into account.
%
\item The masses of the SUSY particles and the values of the soft
breaking parameters B and mu needed for radiative symmetry are
computed, e.g.
$$
\mu^2(M_Z) = {M_{H_1}^2 - M_{H_2}^2 \tan^2\beta \over
\tan^2\beta-1} - M_Z^2/2
$$
These couplings are frozen out at the scale $\sqrt{M(t_L)M(t_R)}$.
%
\item The 1-loop radiative corrections are computed.
%
\item The process is then iterated until stable results are obtained.
\end{enumerate}
This is essentially identical to the procedure used by several other
groups. Other possible constraints such as $b$-$\tau$ unification and
limits on proton decay have not been included.
An alternative to the SUGRA model is the Gauge Mediated SUSY
Breaking (GMSB) model of Dine and Nelson, Phys.\ Rev.\ {\bf D48}, 1277
(1973); Dine, Nelson, Nir, and Shirman, Phys.\ Rev.\ {\bf D53}, 2658
(1996). In this model SUSY is broken dynamically and communicated to the
MSSM through messenger fields at a messenger mass scale $M_m$ much less
than the Planck scale. If the messenger fields are in complete
representations of $SU(5$), then the unification of couplings suggested
by the LEP data is preserved. The simplest model has a single $5+\bar5$
messenger sector with a mass $M_m$ and and a SUSY-breaking VEV $F_m$ of
its auxiliary field $F$. Gauginos get masses from one-loop graphs
proportional to $\Lambda_m = F_m / M_m$ times the appropriate gauge
coupling $\alpha_i$; sfermions get squared-masses from two-loop graphs
proportional to $\Lambda_m$ times the square of the appropriate
$\alpha_i$. If there are $N_5$ messenger fields, the gaugino masses and
sfermion masses-squared each contain a factor of $N_5$.
The parameters of the GMSB model implemented in ISAJET are
\begin{itemize}
\item $\Lambda_m = F_m/M_m$: the scale of SUSY breaking, typically
10--$100\,{\rm TeV}$;
\item $M_m > \Lambda_m$: the messenger mass scale, at which the boundary
conditions for the renormalization group equations are imposed;
\item $N_5$: the equivalent number of $5+\bar5$ messenger fields.
\item $\tan\beta$: the ratio of Higgs vacuum expectation values at the
electroweak scale;
\item $\sgn\mu=\pm1$: the sign of the Higgsino mass term;
\item $C_{\rm grav}\ge1$: the ratio of the gravitino mass to the value it
would have had if the only SUSY breaking scale were $F_m$.
\end{itemize}
The solution of the renormalization group equations is essentially the
same as for SUGRA; only the boundary conditions are changed. In
particular it is assumed that electroweak symmetry is broken radiatively
by the top Yukawa coupling.
In GMSB models the lightest SUSY particle is always the nearly
massless gravitino $\tilde G$. The phenomenology depends on the nature
of the next lightest SUSY particle (NLSP) and on its lifetime to decay
to a gravitino. The NLSP can be either a neutralino $\tilde\chi_1^0$ or
a slepton $\tilde\tau_1$. Its lifetime depends on the gravitino mass,
which is determined by the scale of SUSY breaking not just in the
messenger sector but also in any other hidden sector. If this is set by
the messenger scale $F_m$, i.e., if $C_{\rm grav}\approx1$, then this
lifetime is generally short. However, if the messenger SUSY breaking
scale $F_m$ is related by a small coupling constant to a much larger
SUSY breaking scale $F_b$, then $C_{\rm grav}\gg1$ and the NLSP can be
long-lived. The correct scale is not known, so $C_{\rm grav}$ should be
treated as an arbitrary parameter. More complicated GMSB models may be
run by using the GMSB2 keyword.
Patch ISASSRUN of ISAJET provides a main program SSRUN and some
utility programs to produce human readable output. These utilities must
be rewritten if the IDENT codes in /SSTYPE/ are modified. To create the
stand-alone version of ISASUSY with SSRUN, run YPATCHY on isajet.car
with the following cradle (with \verb|&| replaced by \verb|+|):
\begin{verbatim}
&USE,*ISASUSY. Select all code
&USE,NOCERN. No CERN Library
&USE,IMPNONE. Use IMPLICIT NONE
&EXE. Write everything to ASM
&PAM,T=C. Read PAM file
&QUIT. Quit
\end{verbatim}
Compile, link, and run the resulting program, and follow the prompts for
input. Patch ISASSRUN also contains a main program SUGRUN that reads
the minimal SUGRA, non-universal SUGRA, or GMSB parameters, solves the
renormalization group equations, and calculates the masses and branching
ratios. To create the stand-alone version of ISASUGRA, run YPATCHY with
the following cradle:
\begin{verbatim}
&USE,*ISASUGRA. Select all code
&USE,NOCERN. No CERN Library
&USE,IMPNONE. Use IMPLICIT NONE
&EXE. Write everything to ASM
&PAM. Read PAM file
&QUIT. Quit
\end{verbatim}
The documentation for ISASUSY and ISASUGRA is included with that for
ISAJET.
ISASUSY is written in ANSI standard Fortran 77 except that
IMPLICIT NONE is used if +USE,IMPNONE is selected in the Patchy cradle.
All variables are explicitly typed, and variables starting with
I,J,K,L,M,N are not necessarily integers. All external names such as
the names of subroutines and common blocks start with the letters SS.
Most calculations are done in double precision. If +USE,NOCERN is
selected in the Patchy cradle, then the Cernlib routines EISRS1 and its
auxiliaries to calculate the eigenvalues of a real symmetric matrix and
DDILOG to calculate the dilogarithm function are included. Hence it is
not necessary to link with Cernlib.
The physics assumptions and details of incorporating the Minimal
Supersymmetric Model into ISAJET have appeared in a conference
proceedings entitled ``Simulating Supersymmetry with ISAJET 7.0/ISASUSY
1.0'' by H. Baer, F. Paige, S. Protopopescu and X. Tata; this has
appeared in the proceedings of the workshop on {\sl Physics at Current
Accelerators and Supercolliders}, ed.\ J. Hewett, A. White and D.
Zeppenfeld, (Argonne National Laboratory, 1993). Detailed references
may be found therein. Users wishing to cite an appropriate source may
cite the above report.